The effects of smoking on male fertility
Epidemiological investigations have shown that smoking behavior has a high correlation with male fertility, which is mainly manifested by decreased sperm density in semen, decreased sperm motility, abnormal sperm morphology, and decreased in vitro fertilization and pregnancy rate. This phenomenon directly leads to the reduction of the fertility of smoking men and even affects the health of offspring.
Researchers have tested 207 male sperm DNA fragmentation index (Sperm DNA Fragmentation, SDF) and found that long-term heavy smoking can lead to the decline of male semen quality and sperm DNA damage, thereby affecting male fertility.
In addition, cigarette smoke treatment can change the oxidative stress state of the epididymis, thereby affecting sperm, hindering the formation and maturation of sperm, causing teratozoospermia, asthenospermia, and even azoospermia, and ultimately resulting in a decline in semen quality. At the same time, smoking may increase the positive detection rate of anti-sperm antibodies in men, adversely affect sperm morphology, and cause sperm deformities, which may affect male reproductive ability. These studies have shown that smoking can reduce sperm motility and increase the rate of deformity, which is an important factor in the occurrence of male infertility.
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